Recycled Steel and Its Uses

Back to blogs

Recycled Steel and Its Uses

Steel is one of the most recycled materials in the whole world. Steel can be recycled continuously without any degradation in its quality and can be manufactured from one product to the other. Moreover, it’s easier to recycle scrap steel than to mine ore for the making of new steel. Steel does not degrade during recycling, and thus is the go-to choice for various applications.

There are 3 types of scrap steel:

  1. Home scrap or internal scrap: The discarded steel that’s generated within the mill while steel-making, is referred to as home scrap.
  2. Prompt scrap: The waste generated while manufacturing different kinds of steel products is known as prompt scrap.
  3. Obsolete scrap: The discarded consumer and industrial elements are known as obsolete scrap.

These are recycled to be used for numerous purposes like:

  1. Home furnishings: Recycled steel is utilized in the making of home furniture owing to its great strength even after recycling. Scrap steel is used in the making of beds, couches, tables, and chairs, etc. The steel provides these furniture pieces durability along with superior aesthetics to make the home stand apart.
  2. Food packaging: Recycled steel is also a preferred choice when it comes to food packaging. Steel cans are the most recycled steel product. A lot of canned goods are made from 100% recycled steel. Less energy is used in the making of steel cans from scrap steel as compared to manufacturing steel cans from raw material. Moreover, steel cans provide excellent resistance against humidity, gasses, and UV-light. Thus, the products do not get spoiled. Moreover, as recycled steel is as strong as the new steel, these cans have great strength and can be transported over long distances. Also, steel has a gloss that gives the food packaging a premium look.
  3. Construction material: Recycled steel is widely used in offices and homes because of its strength and durability. From the steel beams required for support inside the offices to ductwork for the cooling and heating system – all mostly made from recycled steel. Moreover, the stairs and the handrails too are manufactured from the same in most of the cases. Moreover, the lighting fixtures as well as the roofing too involve recycled steel. Also, the old and discarded buildings are dismantled and recycled to form steel that is used in the making of new buildings.
  4. Automobiles: An automobile consists of about 65% of steel. Out of this, around 25% is recycled steel. The old, discarded cars are dismantled and after removing the reusable parts like batteries, tyres, etc, the frames are sent for recycling.
  5. Creative uses: Scrapped steel is used for numerous other purposes like road signs, nameplates, sculptures, and steel art. Being made from recycled steel, outdoor signs and sculptures can withstand external factors and stand strong for years.

Recycled Steel and Its Uses

Steel is one of the most recycled materials in the whole world. Steel can be recycled continuously without any degradation in its quality and can be manufactured from one product to the other. Moreover, it’s easier to recycle scrap steel than to mine ore for the making of new steel. Steel does not degrade during recycling, and thus is the go-to choice for various applications.

There are 3 types of scrap steel:

  1. Home scrap or internal scrap: The discarded steel that’s generated within the mill while steel-making, is referred to as home scrap.
  2. Prompt scrap: The waste generated while manufacturing different kinds of steel products is known as prompt scrap.
  3. Obsolete scrap: The discarded consumer and industrial elements are known as obsolete scrap.

These are recycled to be used for numerous purposes like:

  1. Home furnishings: Recycled steel is utilized in the making of home furniture owing to its great strength even after recycling. Scrap steel is used in the making of beds, couches, tables, and chairs, etc. The steel provides these furniture pieces durability along with superior aesthetics to make the home stand apart.
  2. Food packaging: Recycled steel is also a preferred choice when it comes to food packaging. Steel cans are the most recycled steel product. A lot of canned goods are made from 100% recycled steel. Less energy is used in the making of steel cans from scrap steel as compared to manufacturing steel cans from raw material. Moreover, steel cans provide excellent resistance against humidity, gasses, and UV-light. Thus, the products do not get spoiled. Moreover, as recycled steel is as strong as the new steel, these cans have great strength and can be transported over long distances. Also, steel has a gloss that gives the food packaging a premium look.
  3. Construction material: Recycled steel is widely used in offices and homes because of its strength and durability. From the steel beams required for support inside the offices to ductwork for the cooling and heating system – all mostly made from recycled steel. Moreover, the stairs and the handrails too are manufactured from the same in most of the cases. Moreover, the lighting fixtures as well as the roofing too involve recycled steel. Also, the old and discarded buildings are dismantled and recycled to form steel that is used in the making of new buildings.
  4. Automobiles: An automobile consists of about 65% of steel. Out of this, around 25% is recycled steel. The old, discarded cars are dismantled and after removing the reusable parts like batteries, tyres, etc, the frames are sent for recycling.
  5. Creative uses: Scrapped steel is used for numerous other purposes like road signs, nameplates, sculptures, and steel art. Being made from recycled steel, outdoor signs and sculptures can withstand external factors and stand strong for years.

What makes steel Eco friendly?

Back to blogs

What makes steel Eco friendly?

Steel is highly recommended for construction and industrial purposes. It comes off as the best material owing to its various features like great strength, corrosion and fire resistance, etc. However, steel is also an eco-friendly material and a blessing to the environment. This World Environment Day, switch to steel to do your bit for the environment.

Here’s what makes steel an environment-friendly material. 

  1. The by-products of steel can be repurposed: The manufacturing of steel leaves almost no wastage. The making of steel results in by-products such as air-cooled slag, granulated slag, and expanded slag. All these are adapted for various purposes. The air-cooled slag is suitable as a construction aggregate and is also used in ready-mixed concrete, concrete products, asphaltic concrete, road bases, etc. Granulated slag is utilized in making cementitious material and expanded slag as a lightweight aggregate. Moreover, the by-product gases are used as a direct fuel substitute, for the internal generation of electricity, or sold for power generation.
  2. Water used in the manufacturing of steel can be recycled: The average water required by integrated plants per metric ton of steel is 28.6 cubic metres. The water is utilized for various purposes like cooling, descaling, and cleaning. However, around 98% of the water is recycled and returned to the source. It is then acceptable for specific end-use. Some part of the water is lost due to the evaporation.
  3. Endlessly recyclable: Steel can be endlessly recycled without losing its properties and strength. Steel can be easily repurposed for various other uses and is 98% recyclable, thus being environment-friendly.
  4. Less energy is used: Steel can be prepared from scrap metal too and that consumes very little energy. It is manufactured in the electric arc furnace. In it, new steel is produced entirely from scrap steel and the step of creating pig iron from iron ore (which is further used to make steel) is reduced, thus saving up to 74% of the energy. Moreover, steel is sturdy and can support thicker layers of insulation. Thus, homes don’t lose heat or cold in winters and summers respectively and result in saving electricity and reduced bills.
  5. Reduces deforestation: Steel is fast replacing wood. As many people have started using steel in place of wood for furniture and their houses, the usage of wood has reduced. This further results in fewer trees being cut and reducing deforestation. Moreover, steel can be easily reused but it’s difficult to reuse wood. Thus, using steel means no wastage, less energy, and water consumption. To sum it up, steel is an eco-friendly material and is a boon for society.

Steel and Its Uses in Our Homes

Back to blogs

The best way to grant brilliant aesthetics to a house without compromising on the quality is by choosing steel as the constructional material. Steel provides a strong frame to the building. It also provides the liberty to be experimented with in terms of designs and patterns, thus resulting in appealing interiors and exteriors. Moreover, the houses designed by steel don’t require columns for support owing to steel’s bending capacity, thus leading to more open spaces.

Along with lending captivating facades to the houses, steel-made homes are manufactured in less time and result in the reduction of manufacturing costs. Steel structures can be assembled off-site and can be brought on-site for the installation, which requires very little work. Also, steel being light in weight, is easier to move around, resulting in less money being spent.

Along with all these advantages, the steel structures are fire-resistant and reduce the impact of fire to a certain extent. Moreover, steel homes can bear an earthquake because of the steel’s ability to flex.

Just as steel is employed in the making of a house, it is also used inside the homes. From the main entrance to the entry of all the rooms, steel chaukhat is being used. The steel chaukhat is the new age solution which is termite and fire-resistant. It leaves no gaps during the installation, thus preventing dust, etc from entering the house. Along with being cost-effective, it is also highly durable. The same goes for the steel doors. They lend a classy facade to the house and require less maintenance. Steel doors are sturdy, long-lasting and corrosion-resistant.

A number of stylish options are available when it comes to steel stairs. They provide the house with a distinctive look as well as the durability and longevity of steel. The superior quality of steel ensures that it is not affected by corrosion or external factors. Also, steel handrails are used in homes which form an essential part.

Steel D sections are extremely crucial for the construction of balconies and roofs of every house. The reason being, these grant the house with high strength, durability, and longer life at a minimal cost. Apart from this, Steel D sections lend uniformity and make the structure lighter, without meddling in its quality.

Steel furniture is a trendsetter and bestows elegance to the house. Furniture made from steel is the best way to amp up the interiors of your house, as they appear sophisticated and are economic. They will last for years in the same, brand new condition, owing to their longevity.

The sturdy steel planks are the perfect choice to form a fence around your house. The steel planks will impart both style and strength to the house. These will provide the required privacy and safety to your house against wind, storm, and robbery. Hence, making certain you and your house is safe and secure.

Uses of mild steel in the construction industry

Back to blogs

Uses of mild steel in the construction industry

Mild steel, also known as low carbon steel, utilizes only a minute amount of carbon. The percentage of carbon may vary from 0.05% to 0.25% by weight. Moreover, it is not alloy steel and hence does not encompass a huge amount of other elements like chromium, molybdenum, etc.

The technique employed in the manufacturing of mild steel is similar to that of other carbon steels. Iron and coal are melted together in a blast furnace and then hardened into a rectangular shape.

As the carbon content in mild steel is less, the properties also vary as compared to other carbon steels.

Mild steel finds its usage in various applications and the following properties make it the ideal choice for use in an array of places:

  • The less carbon in mild steel makes it more ductile and machinable
  • Mild steel can also be easily welded
  • The mild steel is highly malleable and does not crack as opposed to the high carbon steel that is very susceptible to breaking. Also, this property makes it easier for mild steel to be beaten into thin sheets
  • Mild steel incorporates a high amount of Iron and Ferrite which lends magnetic properties to it
  • Mild steel is cost-effective as opposed to other carbon steels
  • Mild steel is quite versatile and can be easily moulded into any desired shape

Due to its affordability and great properties, mild steel enormously finds its usage in the construction industry, such as:

  1. Steel buildings and bridges
    With properties like ductility, weldability, and malleability, mild steels make for ideal construction material for the steel buildings and bridges. Moreover, mild steel complies with stringent seismic and wind requirements and is also fire-proof.
  2. Pipelines
    Mild steel pipelines are highly used in the transportation of gasses and fluids. The reason being, they are very ductile and can easily be welded. Moreover, the mild steel pipes do not break under pressure, rather bend to allow the smooth passage of the fluids.
  3. Other purposes
    Being able to offer a lot of advantages at a fairly low price, mild steel is utilized in an array of places. They are used in fencing and the making of gates. Moreover, mild steel is also employed in the making of bolts and fasteners as it offers excellent strength and longevity.

Our Products

We leverage the superior qualities of mild steel and manufacture various products with the same utilizing our advanced technology to help our products stand out. Some of our products manufactured with mild steel are:

MS Black Pipe

Our MS Black Pipes are constructed using high-grade mild steel and fulfill the stringent quality standards which lend strength and durability. The pipes are used in various industries owing to their ability to easily weld and cast in various shapes to meet pipelining and tubing requirements.
MS Black Pipes are used as structural building materials in commercial, residential as well as infrastructure projects. These also find their usage in architectural applications such as guard rails and space frames. The agriculture sector too uses MS Black Pipes in transporting water and plumbing. Some other uses include sewage transportation, sprinklers for fire protection, HVAC duct pipes, electrical conduits, fencing for bus stands, airport and railway platforms and some general engineering purposes.

Pre Galvanised Tubes

Mild Steel Galvanised Sheets are used to manufacture the Pre Galvanized Tubes and thus are highly stable and durable. Moreover, they are corrosion resistant and that makes them perfect for various applications. A smooth finish is granted to the Pre Galvanized Pipes at APL Apollo’s in-house galvanizing facility. Besides, the pipes contain a uniform coating throughout and thus can easily endure the constructional distortion without affecting the zinc coating.

The tubes are ideal to be used in household structural applications in coastal regions as well as are employed in the making of sheds, purlins, and rafter systems. Greenhouse structures, electric poles, plumbing, scaffolding, gates, fencing, and grills too use Pre Galvanized Tubes. These also find their usage in automotive applications like the construction of bus bodies and infrastructure structural applications like solar power plants and windmills.

How has steel helped beautify the world around us ?

Back to blogs

How has steel helped beautify the world around us ?

From time immemorial, steel has been an embodiment of strength, quality, and longevity. It’s been e , along with granting strength and durability to these structures, steel has also been a popular choice in the formation of sculptures and art pieces and has worked towards beautifying the world around us. Read on to know the usage of steel in art.

1. Chicago Picasso

Designed by Pablo Picasso, the Cubist sculpture Chicago Picasso has become an eminent landmark and is often cited as the first major public artwork in Downtown Chicago. Weighing 147 tonnes and having a height of 15.2m, the structure was completed on 15th August, 1967. Chicago Picasso was constructed by employing the COR-TEN steel and has stood the test of time. It is immensely popular even today and witnesses a great number of visitors appreciating its grandeur.

2. Flamingo

Created by the celebrated American artist Alexander Calder, Flamingo, in its Calder red stands tall amidst Federal Plaza in Chicago, Illinois. The sculpture is 16m tall and Alexander made use of the stabile art form to design this piece of art. 50 tonnes of steel were employed in the construction of the Flamingo and it came into being in 1974. Even today the steel structure looks spanking new and all the credit goes to the unparalleled strength and durability of steel.

3. Cloud Gate

The Cloud Gate is a work of art and reflects a twisted version of the city’s skyline. It stands 10m by 20m by 13m into the air at Millennium Park (which is the most visited site in midwest) in Chicago, Illinois. The man behind the design of this marvelous creation is Anish Kapoor. Nicknamed as “The Bean” owing to its shape, the structure utilized 168 stainless steel plates that were welded together. Astonishingly, Cloud Gate doesn’t feature any seams and has highly polished exteriors. Unveiled in 2006, the modern steel structure adds to the beauty of the city.

4. Howrah Bridge

Although, not a piece of art by definition, this steel wonder has slowly evolved into one. Constructed with an intention to link the two cities of Howrah and Kolkata, the bridge today has become a popular landmark and a tourist attraction. The bridge easily carries 100,000 vehicles and 150,000 pedestrians daily. The construction of the structure required a whopping 26,500 tons of steel. What’s more impressive is that the bridge does not contain any nuts or bolts but was made by fastening the whole structure. Built in 1942, the bridge stands strong even today and the same showcases the toughness and durability of steel.

5. Antony Gormley’s “The Angel of the North”

The Angel of the North, an enormous statue standing with wings spread out nestles in Gateshead, England and is a sight to behold. Standing 20 meters tall with wings measuring 54 meters across, the statue was created using COR-TEN steel and was completed in 1998. Encompassing the steel strength, the structure retains the same durability even after 22 years of its construction.

Effect of Country Lockdown on Steel Industry

Back to blogs

Effect of Country Lockdown on Steel Industry

The lockdown in India and around the world is having adverse effects on many industries. Many of the sectors are worst-hit by the same and the steel industry too has had to bear the brunt of the lockdown. While it’s a necessary fight for the greater good of mankind, it is imperative to reflect upon the impact of the same on industries to gauge the extent of losses in order to devise a plan to overcome the same.

Key players in the domestic steel market have been forced to shut down operations of many of their manufacturing plants. Even the demand for steel has come down. This sudden halt in the requirement and production will lead to a lowering of the steel prices, thus making way for further losses. Moreover, China’s steel output has declined and China being the largest supplier of finished steel and steel products to India has resulted in the shortage of steel supply. (Source)

The lockdown has led to a nationwide suspension of transport services. The trucks that were the backbone of the steel industry, transporting goods from here to there, are no longer operational and the same is impacting the dispatch of steel products. Most steel companies keep iron ore required for one or two months as a backup near the factory. Still, it would be difficult to carry the same back to the factory due to the unavailability of transport. On the other hand, the construction and infrastructure industry that accounts for around 60 percent of the steel usage too has come to standstill. The same is resulting in the reduction of steel demand.

The lockdown and shutting of manufacturing plants also mean the stoppage of blast furnaces. About half of India’s crude steel output is a result of the blast furnaces. The sudden halting of the blast furnace operations will have unfavorable outcomes like solidifying of hot metal inside the furnace leading to permanent destruction to refractories of the blast furnace and other cooling elements. Moreover, restarting the same has various health dangers like getting hit with equipment, burns, fire, slipping, falling objects, electrocution, etc.

India’s steel ministry secretary Binoy Kumar urged the government to allow the production, supply, and distribution of steel and raw materials under the Essential Services Maintenance Act of 1981. He also brought to notice that the act classifies businesses “dealing with the production, supply or distribution of coal, power, steel or fertilizers” as “essential services”.

Union Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said that the impact of the lockdown on the global steel industry will be felt for up to 2-3 years now that operations in China, the largest producer of the steel, have been halted.

A way out of this can be the permission to continue the production of steel with regulated working hours and with half the workforce and sufficient precautions. The same will at least result in a minimum break even. Once the lockdown is lifted, the production can begin at the normal rate with minimum cost to generate profits.

How is Steel Helping the World of Sports

Back to blogs

How is Steel Helping the World of Sports

Steel is widely used in a variety of things and it is impossible to imagine our everyday life without it. Along with being of huge importance in our day to day lives, steel also plays a huge role in the world of sports. Most of the sports equipment would become useless without steel and that explains the importance of the same when it comes to sports. Take a look at how steel is helping in the world of sports, by lending #InnerStrength to the game equipment/arena which matches the #InnerStrength of the athletes.

1. Cycling: Cycling has emerged to be one of the most popular sports. There are several categories of the same like road bicycle racing, time trialing, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, and cycle speedway. It has also been recognized as an Olympic sport. However, the one thing that forms the backbone of this sport is steel. The frame of the bicycle is produced from steel and the same grants it extraordinary strength and minimum weight. Moreover, it is also used for cables, fasteners, brake disks and spokes in the cycles. It takes intense #InnerStrength to participate in this sport and it can only be matched with the #InnerStrength of steel that will make equipment of unparalleled strength.

2. Basketball: Basketball, a much loved sport around the world, is played indoors. However, it requires a suitable, strong and sustainable building that can house the court as well as the audience. Steel is used in the construction of these courts for a multitude of reasons. Using steel ensures a rapid rate of construction of the buildings without compromising on quality, while being more cost-effective. Also, steel roofs for basketball arenas are a good idea; they can withstand elements better and when painted and coated correctly, they can reduce heating and cooling costs by re-emitting the heat. And last but not the least, steel also ensures minimal maintenance cost, thus resulting in a sturdy and durable court. For the strong players of basketball, it takes a strong arena and that can only be matched by steel.

3. Rock climbing: An array of equipment is required during rock climbing, which ensures the safety of the climber against falling. The anchors, made of steel, provide them with enough load-bearing capacity and are long-lasting and maintenance-free. The expansion and adhesive bolts too employ the usage of steel and offer an exceptional mechanical resistance. The carabiners are also very important for great strength and are made of steel. This is one sport where two things cannot be broken – the athlete’s spirit and the anchors. While the athletes take care of themselves, steel provides them with a support that never breaks.

4.Ice hockey: Skates form a vital part of the Ice Hockey game and the players depend on a good pair of skates to deliver their best. The main part of the skates is formed with the blades or runners used in them, which in turn are manufactured from steel. Harder types of steel are employed so that they offer high-strength and less wear and tear. This is a game where superior skates work in sync with the player and only steel can match the momentum of the players and deliver exceptional results.

5. Horse riding: Horse riding has developed into a distinguished and competitive sport. Horse tacks, the accessories that are used to equip the horse with – everything is manufactured from steel. The equipment includes saddles, stirrups, bridles, halters, reins, bits, harnesses, martingales, and breastplates. A horseshoe, that is used to protect a horse hoof from wear and tear, is also made from steel. While the jockey and the horse work in sync; they are bound by equipment made of steel that grants them the strength the sport requires.

The Steel Women of India

Back to blogs

The Steel Women of India

Indian women, with their inner strength, passion, hard work, and courage have created a niche for themselves. They excel in all the fields, be it science, arts or sports and continue to make our country proud. This Women’s Day, let us laud our steel women, who emerged to be the country’s pride and have won laurels for themselves and made India shine.

Sarojini Naidu: Sarojini Naidu played a pivotal role in India’s struggle to gain freedom from the British rule. She applied her knowledge and inner strength and became a promoter of civil rights, women’s emancipation, and anti-imperialistic ideas. She was also a part of the famous Dandi March, a non-violent protest against the British salt monopoly. Not just this, Sarojini Naidu was a well-read person and has contributed to poetry as well. Her work covered a variety of themes including patriotism, romance, and tragedy. She also earned the sobriquet ‘Nightingale of India’ because of her work.

Mother Teresa: The steel women, Mother Teresa, devoted her life to caring for the sick and poor. She also set-up ‘Missionaries of Charity’ to help the disabled, poor, refugees, un-well and lepers. The congregation operates today also and has a presence in more than 100 countries. Mother Teresa has been awarded various honours for her inner strength and charitable work. She was honoured with Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and is the first Indian to win a Nobel Peace Prize. She was also bestowed with the title of “Bharat-Ratna”, the highest civilian award in India.

Kalpana Chawla: Kalpana Chawla, the national hero of India, is the steel woman who made the whole world proud. Kalpana was an American astronaut and engineer. With her inner strength and dedication, she became the first Indian woman and the second Indian to fly to space. She was in space for 336 hours during her research mission.

Kiran Bedi: The first woman to join the Indian Police Service (IPS), Kiran Bedi is widely known for her achievements and inner strength. She has been honoured with various awards, starting from President’s Police Medal to Ramon Magsaysay Award. Moreover, in 2003, Bedi was also chosen as a Police Advisor to Secretary-General of the United Nations in the Department of Peace Keeping Operations, and became the first Indian woman to achieve the same.

Saina Nehwal: Steel women Saina Nehwal has immensely contributed to the world of badminton. With her inner strength and constant hard work, Saina, in 2015, became the first Indian woman to become no. 1 in World ranking. Also, she represented India thrice in the Olympics and in 2012, became the first Indian to win a medal in Badminton at the Olympics.

Bhawana Kanth: In May 2019, Indian Air Force officer Flight Lieutenant Bhawana Kanth became the first day-time Indian woman fighter pilot. She is lauded for her courage and inner strength to be on the forefront to fight for the nation.

These are some of the many women who have won laurels for the country and made us a proud nation. Here’s hoping for a brighter tomorrow where we can encourage and inspire more women to achieve more.

APL Apollo salutes the inner strength of each and every woman. Happy Women’s Day!

How steel industry can help in growing India’s GDP

Steel finds its usage in a myriad of things. It is employed in the construction industry, automobile sector, appliances, medical equipment, in the utensils that we eat, everyday products like the cans that we drink in and even in the smallest of products like needles. And yet, it is far away from reaching its saturation point. The steel production is the key for India to attain a higher GDP because of its wide usage and India’s capacity to cater to the steel requirements.

India produces more than 100 MT of steel each year and has surpassed Japan to become the second-largest producer of crude steel. The steel industry already contributes around 2% to India’s GDP and with the growing need for steel, it has the potential to add more to the country’s growth. The steel sector employees over 6 lakh people directly and around 20 lakh people indirectly, thus being of great importance in the development of the country.

The steel industry of India has an output multiplier effect (the multiplier effect causes gains in total output to be greater than the change in spending that caused it) of 1.4x, while it has an employment multiplier effect (measures the amount of direct, indirect and induced jobs created (or lost) in the area) of 6.8x. Hence, the steel industry is further expected to grow. Moreover, the per capita steel consumption in India is 69 kg, whereas, globally it is 208 kg. The figure in India is really low and by 2030, the steel consumption per person is expected to reach 160 kg per person, thus making way for more opportunities in the steel industry. 

There are several factors which further aids in expanding the steel industry. The Indian steel sector owes its growth to the domestic availability of raw materials such as high-grade iron ore and non-coking coal. Moreover, the cost-effective and young workforce is another advantage to India’s steel industry.  Also, India is blessed with a long coastline on the west, east, and south; thus making it one of the chief players in the global steel market.

In the coming years, the requirement of steel in India is expected to grow enormously as India is soon likely to become the second-largest consumer of steel. There are numerous other opportunities that will facilitate the same such as the announcement of the expansion of railways, the construction of around 20,000 km of highways and the establishment of numerous steel plants under the Sagarmala project. Moreover, the proposed National Logistics Policy further works in favour of the steel industry as it would result in a smooth movement of goods throughout the nation and reduction of the transaction cost.

The steel industry will also reap benefits from the Budget 2020 as the government has introduced infra projects worth Rs 103 trillion besides the supply of Rs 1.70 trillion for transport infrastructure and highways construction. The steel industry will further strengthen as India is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with a number of countries and the same will be of huge profit to the domestic manufacturing industry.

All these factors come together to provide a boost to the steel industry, which in turn yields numerous job opportunities and enhances the GDP of the country.