Top Five Steel Structures’ History

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Top Five Steel Structures’ History

Over the years, we have seen the architectural wonders of the world being shaped as per times and material available. As the wonders of steel were discovered, it became an integral part of the construction industry. Today, some of the largest and strongest structures around the world are made of steel and they are becoming the wonders of the modern world. The reasons for this are manifold. Being one of the most extensively used materials, it is easily available at every place. There are many reasons why steel is so widely used in the construction industry. As steel is lightweight, it is easier to transport from one place to another – thus reducing cost and labour. Steel has a high strength to weight ratio, thus making it much stronger and reducing the quantity which in turn reduces cost of building. Added to these, steel is also a sustainable resource that is eco-friendly. Now, let’s take a look at some of the steel structures that have become iconic over the years:

Eiffel Tower

One of the seven wonders of the world, today, the Eiffel Tower represents the country on the world map. It was built in 1889, and was the world’s tallest tower for almost 42 years before the Chrysler Building came up. It is 324 metres tall and weighs 10,100 tonnes. It required 2.5 million thermally assembled rivets 7300 tonnes of wrought iron, the precursor to steel. The design was latticed to prove that it could be as strong as stone while being lighter.

Brooklyn Bridge

The Brooklyn Bridge was the first steel-wire suspension bridge. It was built in 1869 and was so heavy that it took a decade to build. It is 130 years old and is the oldest bridge in New York that allows vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Looking at the strength and design, the architect hailed steel as the ‘metal of the future’. To prove the strength of the new bridge, a herd of 21 elephants crossed the bridge in 1884.

Sydney Harbour Bridge

This is the world’s largest steel-arch bridge and is an iconic structure for not just Australia, but for the world. The total steel work is 52,800 tones where the arch makes up for 39,000 tonnes. It has a 49m wide deck that includes a whopping eight lanes of traffic, two train lines, a cycle path and footpath.

Burj Khalifa

One of the modern architectural wonders, the Burj Khalifa stands at a staggering 2716.5 feet. It holds the world record for the tallest building in the world, and is the tallest freestanding structure in the world with 163 floors above the ground. The building required 330,000 cubic metres of concrete, 39,000 metres of reinforced steel, 15,500 sqm of embossed stainless steel and 103,000 sqm of glass. With such detailing and intricate design, the Burj Khalifa also holds the world record for several other things.

Empire State Building

This internationally renowned building was the tallest building for 41 years before being surpassed by the World Trade Centre. Despite the monumental size of the building, it took only 20 months – from design to construction. It is 1250 feet tall and was built between 1930 – 31. It comprises of 60,000 tonnes of steel, 200,000 feet of Indiana limestone and granite, 10 million bricks and 730 tonnes of aluminium and steel. The stability of the structure is derived from steel columns and beams.

Selling Steel as a Commodity to Selling Steel as a Brand

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Selling Steel as a Commodity to Selling Steel as a Brand

By definition, commodity is raw material or primary product that is sold and processed further to produce a finished product. As steel is a rather versatile and useful commodity, it was initially sold as a commodity which would then be used in the required industry and form. However, branding and marketing it, was not on the cards in the initial days when the industry was slowly expanding.

Creating a brand recall for a commodity that wasn’t fully in the common man’s domain wasn’t an easy task. But with time, the common man became much more aware of every component that was involved in the making of the final product. Simultaneously, brands felt the need for branding, to retain more customers and spread awareness.

Branding a product meant giving an otherwise indistinguishable product a unique identity. Following the success of branding, companies could also use it to their benefit by charging a premium price for assured quality and reassurance that could only be given by a brand. It started off with products that were at the consumer’s end but soon expanded to other categories – with growing awareness and knowledge, there was a market for branded steel goods that the consumer could ask for by name. They made their way into the retail segment – thus taking the steel industry forward by leaps and bounds.

Branding steel also meant being safe amidst market fluctuations. Experts have even cited that branding commodities could also help develop the relations between buyers and suppliers. Branding the products also meant that the workers and manufacturers would take a greater interest and would thus have more commitment towards the process.

Today, even the common man is actively involved in processes that were previously considered to be the fabricator’s job. A wider reach has enabled the industry to make the audience aware of its brand and benefits and the goal – that every consumer would ask for the brand – is well within reach.

As a brand, APL Apollo has grown considerably in the past few years. Today, we are one of the top five steel tube manufacturers in the world and we have crossed the milestone of producing 2 million tonnes of steel annually. We have developed more economical, eco-friendly and sustainable products that are used in the development of the country every day. Previously, we manufactured steel sheets and pipes that could be a part of any industry. Today we have branched into consumer facing products like window sections and door frames. In this scenario, branding has made our customer aware of these products and today, they know our product by the name ‘Chaukhat’. This has widened our reach and increased our customer retention and satisfaction.

How does DFT differ from the other steel making processes?

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How does DFT differ from the other steel making processes?

Steel is an integral part of the construction industry and is the most widely used and most recycled material. Steel is available in various forms – from stainless and high-temperature steel to flat carbon products. Steel is one of the most innovative materials in the world. The steel industry’s step to achieve 100% efficiency has led to constructive discussions and advancement in technology. DFT is the latest technology in the steel industry which helps in manufacturing universal hollow steel pipes. It allows the buyers to customize their steel pipe according to the design. APL Apollo was the one to introduce DFT in India. Let us look at some of the other processes to understand the importance and necessity of DFT.


It is a steel making and iron making process that helps in the production of Direct Reduced Iron. It is a gas-based shaft furnace process that helps in solid-state reduction process which reduces iron ore pellets in Direct Reduced Iron (DRI). The capacity of production has increased to 1.8 million tons per year in 2007.

The MIDREX process is effective because of

  1. Continual refinement of the process which includes increases heat recovery,
  2. Larger capacity shaft furnaces and
  3. Hot briquetting.
Electric Arc Furnace:

An Electric Arc Furnace is an extremely hot enclosed space in which heat is produced by means of electrical arcing. The electric arc is produced between the electrodes. This process is used for melting the metals. It is used to produce mini steel structural bars and steel rods. There are two types of Electrical Arc Furnaces – they are alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) operated the electric furnace.


It is a smelting reduction process which combines a melter gasifier with a reduction shaft. The main inputs for this process are lump iron ore, non-coking coal, and oxygen. It helps in cost-efficient and environment-friendly COREX, production of hot metal. It is accepted as a commercially proven technology by fulfilling more stringent ecological regulations, utilization of low cost, highly available low-grade raw material.

Direct Forming Technology:

This technology has brought a revolutionary change in the steel pipe production industry. This helps in producing universal hollow shapes of pipe to fit customer requirements. It is an innovative route to pipe production. Compared to other traditional steelmaking processes it is completely automatic and computerized. Set-up operation of DFT is accurate and fast as compared to others. It enables buyers to get pipes according to the size they want, without compromising on the quality. This method gives an undisputed advantage in terms of production capability, cost reduction and flexibility. These square and rectangular hollow sections are lesser in weight and superior in strength as compared to other methods of steel tube manufacturing. DFT gives an advantage of on-time delivery of high-quality material.

Thus, switching to DFT has proven to be sustainable and cost-efficient that will ultimately fuel the growth of the industry.

Latest Trends in the Steel Industry

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Latest Trends in the Steel Industry

Steel is the most commonly used metal in the world as it plays a crucial role in the development of a sustainable society. It is the most common building material as steel can be recycled without a loss of strength. The steel industry has evolved over time, especially in India.

In the early years, under the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, the iron and steel industry were reserved under the public sector but due to a shortage of steel production and increased demand, government liberalized the steel industry in 1980. India has now emerged as one of the significant steel producers in the world. India is the 8th largest producer of crude steel in the world and seventh largest steel producer in the world.

In the late 18th century, the invention of the steam engine enabled mass production of iron. Though it required an external heat source and its productivity was relatively low, it permitted a wide range of iron resources and easy control of temperature.

After this, the basic oxygen steelmaking process emerged in the steel industry. This, along with continuous casting processes developed in the 1950s, came to be considered the most innovative technologies in the history of the steel industry. It had many advantages of cost competitiveness, high productivity and the ability to produce a wide range of high-quality steel. But soon global research institutes found out several disadvantages of these processes, including generation of a large number of environment pollutants.

With the advancement of the world, a system equally developed was needed to match the requirements. To keep up with the pace of development, we needed a manufacturing process that could produce steel equipment at an equivalent pace. This is where DFT came into the scenario. APL Apollo was the first company to import the technology and introduce it in India and till date, we remain the sole manufacturing company that uses this technology.

DFT is used to make hollow sections of superior quality and finish. This technology can form rectangular and square hollow sections of different sizes and thickness directly, Thus reducing the huge cost and providing better productivity at both – customer and company – levels. It also helps in customizing orders and makes any size between 26 mm X 13 mm – 400 mm X 200 mm in rectangular hollow sections and 12 mm X 12 mm – 300 mm X 300 mm in square hollow sections. In addition to being durable, stylish and cost-effective, steel produced using DFT is also eco-friendly.

Thus the ever-evolving industry is truly at a stage where its products can be adapted into various spheres of our lives and this has been made possible with the advancement of technology and latest trends that have been embraced by the industry.

Tests and Standards to Check the Quality of Steel

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Tests and Standards to Check the Quality of Steel

Testing a material is very crucial as it helps in identifying the characteristics and behavior of a substance. Steel being the world’s foremost construction material has to be of the best quality. Setting a standard and maintaining it is quite crucial in order to gain customer loyalty as well as ensuring safety. The steel industry uses the term “quality” to designate a characteristic of a material which makes it well suited for a particular application. Various tests performed to ensure the quality of the material are as follows:

 1. What is a mill certificate?

It is a quality assurance document that a producer uses in the metal industry to show product compliance with international standards. It certifies both physical as well as chemical properties. This certificate provides assurance to the end users of the raw material that the order they received is as per their requirements. It helps to maintain the traceability of the product from start to end i.e. from raw material to a finished product.

2. What is bending test?

It is an inexpensive quality test that helps to determine the flexibility and soundness of the metal. Through this test you can determine the material’s resistance level. The main aim of this test is to shape the sample material into various shapes. This test shows whether the metal will be able to tolerate the pressure under construction or not. It is necessary to maintain the frequency of the bending test in order to prevent structural issues.

3. What is tension test?

This process helps determine the tensile strength, yield strength, and elasticity of the material. This test shows the reaction of the material towards the force applied to it. In this test, the manufacturer puts a steel bar sample under controlled tension, until the failure stage. It helps in predicting material performance under normal and extreme forces.

4. What is yield strength test?

This test involves taking a steel sample whose cross-section area is determined prior, then pulling it with a controlled gradual increasing force until it changes its shape or breaks. When the yield formula is demonstrated by a metallic material there is a point at which plastic deformation occurs without any increase in force.

5. What is chemical test?

This test is done on steel to know the level of chemical content and find out whether there is a dangerous chemical substance in the sample. A chemical analyst conducts a test to check the chemical contents of a sample and learn the composition, structures, and material properties from the atomic scale up to a molecule scale.

Standards for steel:

India is the 3rd largest producer of steel in the world percentage of standard and certified steel. In India, the Bureau of Indian Standards is engaged in the formulation and implementation of national standards known as Indian Standards. Adoption of Indian Standards or marking products to bear ISI Mark by its very nature is optional unless it is made mandatory under specific Law, Rules & Regulations. Section 14 of the BIS Act 1986 authorizes Union Government to make the use of ISI marks mandatory in the public interest.

Government has been imposing steel quality control order for ensuring the quality of steel for the industry users and public at large. Ministry of Steel has, so far, notified 4 different quality control orders covering thereby 33 steel products and they are Steel and Steel Products (Quality Control) Order, 2012,  Steel and Steel Products (Quality Control) Second Order, 2012, Steel and Steel Products (Quality Control) Order, 2015, Stainless Steel Products (Quality Control) Order, 2016. Various standards for steel in India are available here.

Types of Steel Window Sections

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Types of Steel Window Sections

Windows are an indispensable part of any home or office – they let in the natural light and fresh air and ensure ventilation within closed walls. Window frames have evolved over a period of time and mainly in two respects – the raw material used in framing and the functional design of the sections of the frame. Steel window frames have become popular as it promotes high strength and longer durability.  With the enhancement in technology the role of a window has widened. The windows are designed to provide insulation against outside noise to reduce disturbance, protection from storms and prevention of rain water seepage. It also breaks the monotony of the walls and adds to the overall aesthetics of your home.


Steel window sections are preferred over wooden window sections as steel is lighter in weight, formation of structure is easier in steel as compared to wood and steel does not retain as much heat as wood.


Windows come in various varieties – depending upon its shape and style, they can change the entire look of the house or office. Choosing the right type of window for a particular location can be quite a task given the different styles, features and materials available in the market today. Here are a few things you can keep in mind when you are planning to replace those old, creaky windows or while building a new structure.


The window sections help in developing the steel window frames. A common way to classify window frames is by the way they open. In addition to being fixed, window frames can rotate or pivot around a vertical or horizontal axis, or slide. Along with this, it has several other features such as:

  • High Strength and durability
  • Long life
  • Cost effective as compared to wooden frames
  • Minimal maintenance cost
  • Better finish
Window L section

Size: 46mm×18mm, 52mm×24mm, 62mm×33mm
Thickness: 1mm to 2mm

Window T section

Size: 52mm×25mm
Thickness: 1mm to 2mm

Window Z section

Size: 52mm×25mm

Thickness: 1mm to 2mm

Making a good and well-informed decision is a crucial skill at every level. So choose wisely for good results.

How Innovation is Changing the World Around Us?

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How Innovation is Changing the World Around Us?

“Innovation is the only way to win.” – Steve Jobs

In a constantly changing world, it is essential that we move forward in every aspect. Turnaround time for most things has drastically reduced and there has been a noticeable shift in designs, materials, durability etc. Growing concern for the conservation of resources has been one of the factors that has changed the way things were done in the past. At every step, the world is evolving and innovations are being embraced to fit into this ever-changing world. With every passing day, the needs evolve and one must keep innovating to keep up with the demands. The world today, needs enhanced structures and materials that are stronger, more aesthetic, more durable, technology-driven and something that doesn’t harm the environment.

As civilization came into existence, we were primarily dependent on natural resources for all our needs. Even with the advancement in our methods, we relied heavily on animal power and non-renewable sources for most of our work. Gradually with the growth in population and need for advanced systems, we switched to methods that were more efficient than the previous ones. While this sustained us for a long time, the ever-evolving world and the growing population again gave rise to a need for more innovation that would make our lives easier while conserving the environment.

Today, we are at a point, where innovation is needed more than ever. We are a nation, developing by leaps and bounds. From housing to machinery – every industry needs things at an instant. Like every developing nation, we too need infrastructure to support the growth and true development is when a nation develops across industries. To cater to the needs of so many industries, it was essential to develop a system that produced cost and time effective materials. These also need to be versatile so as to reduce manual efforts. At this juncture, the introduction of innovation in technology becomes more important than ever.

As a part of this developing nation, it was also our duty to introduce innovation that would accelerate the growth. This has led us to adapting innovative methods of production like DFT i.e. Direct Forming Technology, which saves materials and is more cost and time effective. This also allows customization, thus taking away the need for production of different raw material at different places. Today, our products are used in bridges, staircases, atriums, airports, stadiums, shopping malls etc. Innovation is building a world where your products can cater to multiple industries simultaneously. Along with producing steel tubes and pipes at a fast pace, we are also reducing the usage of wood in various industries. We achieved this by providing alternate products that are durable and eco-friendly. Today, we take pride in developing the nation in an innovating way along with creating a sustainable future.

How Steel Tube Industry is Helping in Saving the Environment?

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How Steel Tube Industry is Helping in Saving the Environment?

Whether you are looking for a more environment-friendly solution to your construction needs or wanting to learn more about making the right choice – this is a must-read for you. Over the years, the steel tube industry has evolved and the growth has also been accelerated due to growing environmental concerns. Today, we are among the top five steel tube manufacturing companies and we are expanding every day to meet the growing demands. In the process, we are also adding to environment conservation. Let’s take a look at how this is done!

Steel Is Recyclable

Most steel is 100% recyclable, which essentially means it can be made into other things after the original product is no longer in use. Easily traceable with magnetic separation, steel can also be easily recovered from waste and other places and utilized to make other things. This leads to an overall reduction in materials needed and also saves limited natural resources, thus saving the environment.

Steel Is Durable

When you opt for steel, you invest in a product that is much more durable than its counterparts. Over the years, this leads to reduction in production of materials thus saving time, energy and money. Often, fossil fuels are used for manufacturing these products and by providing more durable products, the steel tube industry is ensuring the reduction of finite resources.

Steel Reduces Waste

By producing sustainable products; the steel tube industry is reducing the waste in the environment. Steel being recyclable, is sent for processing, instead of adding to the non-recyclable waste that is increasing every day. This greatly helps the environment while creating quality products for our consumers.

Steel Replaces Wood

Steel tubes and pipes are replacing wood every day. This greatly reduces the need for felling trees thus leading to a greener tomorrow. The less use of wood also reduces deforestation and in turn lessens soil erosion, which often causes many natural disasters. Steel is more durable than wood and this leads to products lasting longer, which would have otherwise been replaced by more wooden products. It is also being used to build door frames and window frames and other structures, which were traditionally made of wood. This ensures that the structures last longer and do not get infested by pests or affected by weather, like in the case of wooden frames.

Apart from offering durability and great designs, switching to steel is also contributing towards conservation of the environment. Have you made the switch yet?